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石神

2021/12/30  阅读:50  主题:默认主题

【英语笔记】英语语法框架

(可能大多数人和我一样,在学习一项技能的时候,会在各显神通的时代,搜索xxx入门,xxx进阶之类的字样。正巧在上一周,我打算重新学习英语,也进行了同样的操作,后来发现入门学完感觉还欠点什么,学完不知道再学什么,问题没有针对性,有什么学什么,这样知识体系永远也不会建立起来,因此框架是非常重要的)在学习完英语语法框架后,建议开始背单词,用牛津之类的词典想要记住的单词,再声明一遍,是借助词典背单词,而不是背词典

语法是语言的规律总结,并非一成不变 语法背后有思维规律,即英语思维(其他语言也试用)

语法有形式——语法结构(准确性 有意义——结构的含义(表意性 用法——使用语境(合适性

一、句法

1.1三种句子结构

  • 简单句
  • 并列句
  • 复合句

1.2三大从句

1.2.1定语从句

  • 充当形容词

    选择连词与表达意思无关,与先行词有关

    1、被名词和代词修饰的从句 2、被修饰的对象是先行词 3、分为限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句

  • 关系词的三个作用:

    1、连接,引导 2、代替 3、充当成分

     关系代词
     	指人						指物
     主	who/that					which/that
     宾	who/whom/that				which/that
     属	whose						whose
     关系副词
     原因				时间			地点
     why				when			where
    
  • 非限定性定语从句:

    1、句子对先行词没有限制作用,缺少不影响对句子的理解 2、往往有逗号隔开 3、先行词也可以是短语或句子 4、翻译时,可与主句分开 5、具有强调作用

  • 关系副词why We don't know the reason why he didn't show up. 我们不知道他出现的原因

    注意: 1、why可以换成that或省略 2、why只能引导限制性定语从句,不能引导非限制性

  • 从句连词比动词少一个 关系副词when There comes a time when you have to make a choice. 到了你不得不做成选择的时候了

  • 关系副词where,都可引导 This is the village where he was born. 这个村庄是他出生的地方

    1、只用that,不用which 先行词是被序数词、最高级、不定式修饰时 This is my second chance that I can make a speech here. 先行词既有人,又有物 My daughter and my car that are my favorite things. 先行词带有 the only, the very, the same, the last, the one 等词 It is the only thing that I cherish in my whole life.

    2、只能用which,不能用that 先行词后有介词 This the one of which I'm speaking. 非限制性定语从句 Beijing, which was China's capital for more than 800 years. those+复数名词之后 Shopkeepers want to keep a number of those goods which sell best.

1.2.2状语从句

  • 充当副词

    关系连词有具体意义 时间 when, as, while, before, after, not until 地点 where 原因 because, as, since, now(that)既然,when, seeing(that)由于,considering (that)考虑到,give (that)考虑到 条件 if 目的(为了,以防) so that, in order that, 让步 though,although 比较 原级:as……as, 比较级:more than 最高级:the most……in/of, the+形容词+最高级……of/in 特殊引导词:the more……the more; no……more than;not A so such as B 方式 as if, as though 结果 so that, such a …… that

1.2.3名词性从句

  • 充当名词

  • 主语从句 1、由that引导 That you will win the medal seems unlikely. 为避免头重脚轻,用形式主语 it 代替真正主语“ you will win the medal” It seems unlikely that you will win the medal.

    2、其他引导词: which,when,whether,what,whatever(与中文意思有关)

  • 宾语从句 从句代替宾语,所以动词之后都是宾语从句 eg: I think that……

  • 表语从句 在 be动词 或 感官动词 之后的从句 eg: China is no longer what she used to be.

  • 同位语从句 主句与从句分离翻译,翻译时出现“是”。 I heard the news that our team had won. 我听到的消息是我们队赢了 修饰物 修饰人 修饰其他

1.3四种句子类型

  • 陈述句

  • 疑问句

  • 祈使句 表命令,请求,劝告,警告等的句子 主语省略第二人称,动词用一般现在时

    • 1、肯定句 ①Be + 形容词/名词 Be a man! Be carefully! ②实意动词原形 + 其他 Stand up. ③let + 宾语 + 动词原形 + 其他 let me help you. ④名词,副词,名词短语 Patience! Quickly! ⑤祈使句的强调形式 - 在整个句子前加do Do finish it.

    • 2、否定句 ①Don't + 动词原形 Don't fight! ②let's not + 动词原形 let's not do like that. ③用否定副词never构成,加强否定含义 Never give up. ④用no表禁止 No smoking.

    • 3、祈使句的反义疑问 let's 包括对方,let us 不包括对方 Let‘s go home, shall we? Let us go there, will you? Have a rest, will you? (will we 说明包括对方,征求对方意见更多一点,可理解为对前一个提议我们要不要一起,而will you 不包括对方,可理解为我要这样做了,你怎么打算)

    • 4、祈使句与if引导的条件状语从句转化 Study harder, and you will get good grades. = If you study harder, you will get good grades.

  • 感叹句(主谓可省)

    • 1、What + 名词 + 主语 + 谓语 单数名词前加不定冠词,可数名词或名词复数则不用 What a surprise!

    • 2、What + 形容词 + 名词 + 主语 + 谓语 单数名词前加不定冠词,可数名词或名词复数则不用 What a fine day!

    • 3、How + 形容词/副词 + 主语 + 谓语 How fast he drives!

    • 4、How + 形容词 + a + 单数可数名词 + 主语 + 谓语 (名词必须是可数单数) How tall a boy he is!

    • 5、How + 主语 + 谓语 (省略了不言而喻的副词) How he worked!

1.4特殊句式

1.4.1倒装

  • 部分倒装

    将谓语的一部分(如助动词或情态动词)置于主语之前 如果没有助动词或情态动词,则在合适的位置自行添加 句首为否定或半否定的词 no, never, seldom, little, hardly, at no time, in no way, no until……

    Never have I seen such a performance. Seldom does he come here.

    Not until the child fell asleep did the mother leave the room.

    含否定词的句型 Not only … but also, hardly/ scarcely…when… ,No sooner… than……

    Not only did he refuse the gift, he also severely criticized the sender.

    如果not only……but also连接两个名词,则不倒装 Not only you but also I am like fond of music. 表示“也”,“也不”的句子要部分倒装 Tom can speak French, so can Jack. If you won't go, neither will I. only放在句首要倒装 Only in the way, can you learn English well. Only after being asked three times did he come to the meeting.

    如果是主从复合句,主句倒装,从句不倒装 Only when he is seriously ill, does he ever stay in bed. as,though引导的要倒装 Try hard as he might, he fail to convince his teacher. Child as she is, she can speak 2 foreign languages. 虚拟语气从句中有‘were’,‘had’,‘should’ Were I you, I would try it again. Should he fail the exam, he would have to wait for another year.

  • 完全倒装

    将谓语动词全部置于主语之前,通常用于一般现在时和一般过去时 here, there, now, then, thus等副词置于句首,谓语动词通常用be, come, go There goes the bell. Here is your letter. 表运动方向的副词或地点状语置于句首,谓语表运动的动词 Ahead sat an old woman.

    (如果主语是人称代词,则为不完全倒装) Here he comes.(Here comes our boss.) so…that句型中so位于句首 So frightened was he that he thought about giving up.

1.4.2强调

  • It was……that

    It is/was + 被强调部分(通常是主语,宾语或状语)+that/who(当强调的是主语且主语指人时用who)+ 其他 It was yesterday that he met Li Hua.

    一般疑问同上,将is/was 提前

    特殊疑问句:被强调部分(通常是疑问代词或疑问副词)+ is/was + it + that/who + 其他部分 When and where was it that you were born?

    强调句只能是一般现在时或一般过去时,原句是一般过去时,过去完成时和过去进行时用 It was……,其他用 is not……until It is/was not until + 被强调部分 + that + 其他部分 普通句:He didn't go to bed until/till his wife came back. 强调句:It was not until his wife came back that he went to back. 谓语动词的强调 用do,does,did强调 解决了 It is/was that 不能强调谓语的问题 Do sit down. He did write to you last week.

1.4.3省略

为了避免重复,突出新信息

  • 状语从句的省略

    主从句主语一致,且从句谓语中含be 可同时省略从句主语和be动词的某种形式

    1、when, while引导时间状语从句 Do be careful when (you are) crossing the street. When/while (I was) on my way to work, I met her.

    2、if,unless,once引导的条件状语从句 If (it is) properly treated,waste will do no harm to the environment. I’ll not go to the party unless (I am) invited. Once (you are) caught stealing in a supermarket,you will be punished.

    3、though,although,whether,no matter whether/what/how/who等引导的让步状语从句 He was happy,though/although (he was) poor. Whether (she is) sick or well,she is always cheerful. No matter how/However hard the task (is),we must fulfill it in time.(注:从句的主语和主句的主语不一致时,只省略从句中的be动词形式)

    4、as if,as though引导的方式状语从句 He rubbed his eyes and yawned as if/though (he was) waking up after a long sleep. He stood up as if/though (he wanted) to leave.(as if/though + to do表示一个将来的动作) than, as 引导比较状语从句 当不同的主语进行比较时,一般省略从句中的谓语;当从句中的主语与谓语(be动词除外)和主句中的主语与谓语相同时,通常省略从句中的主语和谓语,只保留比较部分.

    He is taller than his brother (is). I have as much as confidence in you as (I have confidence) in him. 以if从句为代表的状语从句 通常省略了it is,that is,there is/are. If (it is) possible/necessary,this old temple will be rebuilt. If (that is) so,I will call you back at 5:00 pm. There are only a few books in our school library,if (there are) any. 定语从句的省略 关系词的省略 关系代词that,which,whom等在限制性定语从句中充当宾语且不位于介词之后时,可以省略;in which或that在先行词way后作方式状语从句时可省略.

    The man (that/who/whom) you visited last night is my grandpa. I don’t like the way (in which/that) you treat the girl. 虚拟语气中if及should的省略 当条件状语从句中有were,had,should等时 If I were a teacher,I would be strict with my students. = Were I a teacher,I would be strict with my students. Suggest,insist,order,require等表示建议、要求、命令的动词后接的名词性从句中,谓语动词常用“should+动词原形”,should可以省略 The doctor suggested that he (should) try to lose weight. 不定式符号to的省略 感官动词see,hear,feel,watch等和使役动词have,make,let等后接不定式作宾语时,不定式省略to. do nothing but,can’t help but等结构常接省略to的不定式. We didn’t do anything but stay at home watching TV yesterday. Hearing the news,she couldn’t help but cry. 在特定语境中为了避免重复,当不定式再次出现时,在want,wish,hope,try,plan,like,love,hate后往往只保留to,而省略后面的动词.但不定式后有be,have时,也保留be和have. My parents encouraged me to go to college,but I didn’t want to. So和not的替代性省略 用于避免重复前面所说过的内容,替代词so/not替代肯定或否定的名词性从句.可与believe,do,expect,fear,guess,hope,say,speak,suppose,think,I’m afraid等连用

    – Do you suppose he is going to attend the meeting? – I suppose not. 日常交际中的省略 在情景会话中,答语常常省略不会引起歧义的主语、谓语或宾语部分,而只保留对方希望了解的内容.在复合句或并列句中,也有省略主、谓、宾的情况.

    – How many copies do you want?-- (I want) Three copies,please. -- Have you ever been to the Great Wall?-- No,(I have) never (been to the Great Wall).

1.4.4反义疑问

前肯后否,前否后肯

注:陈述部分出现 no, nothing, nobody, none, never, few, little, seldom, rarely, hardly, scarcely 等否定词,后半句就用肯定

  • 情态动词

    should…,shouldn’t + 主? ought to…,oughtn’t/ shouldn’t +主? used to…,didn’t/ used not + 主? would rather… (than…),wouldn’t + 主? would like to…,wouldn’t + 主? have to…,don’t + 主? had better…,hadn't + 主? must的三种情况 1、表“必须”、“有必要”时,疑问部分多用 mustn’t。 2、表“禁止,不可以”时,疑问部分用 must。 3、表肯定推测时,分2种情况: a)must + 动词原形:疑问部分跟这个动词保持一致,比如 be 动词 — am/ is/ are b)“过去肯定做过某事”:must have done…,haven’t/ didn’t + 主?

    注:如果有明确的表示过去的时间状语,疑问部分可以用 did。 need和dare 1、 作情态动词时,疑问部分:need 或 dare + 主? 2、作实义动词时,疑问部分:do + 主语? 代词 1、“物品系”不定代词 — it “人物系”不定代词 — they this/ that — it these/ those — they 2、当陈述句主语是 one 时,疑问部分主语正式场合用 one,或非正式场合多用 you。 3、 当陈述句主语是从句、不定式(短语)、动词-ing形式时,疑问部分主语用it。 宾语从句/并列句 1、当主句的主语是 I 和 We ,谓语是 think,believe,suppose,imagine,expect,consider,guess 等跟“认为”、“猜想” 有关的词,且是「一般现在时」的时候,疑问部分跟从句对应。 2、当陈述部分是并列句,疑问部分跟最近的分句对应。 祈使句 Let’s…,shall we? Let us…,will you?

    肯定祈使句 + will/won't you? 否定祈使句 + will you? 其他 1、 当陈述部分是“there be…”,疑问部分主语用 there。 2、 当陈述部分是感叹句,疑问部分用 be + 主语。>> 当陈述部分的谓语是 wish,疑问部分用 may + 主语。 3、当陈述部分为 I am… 时,疑问部分要用aren’t I/ ain't I。

1.5五种基本句

  • 主+谓

    动词表意完整(vi

  • 主+ 谓+宾

  • 主+谓+宾+宾补

    区别双宾: 在宾语后加is,主谓宾宾补可以讲通,主谓双宾逻辑不通

  • 主+谓+间宾+直宾

    间宾——动作的接受者 直宾——动作的承受者

  • 主+系+表

1.6八种句子成分

  • 主语

句子中描述的主体,和动作相关联 The boys laughed.

  • 谓语

    除了主语以外的其他成分形成的整体,描述“做什么”或“是什么” I will watch the movie. 时态:主动、被动 语气:虚拟、陈述、祈使

  • 宾语

    被动词和介词支配的对象,跟在动词或介词之后,一般由名词、宾格代词或从句构成 He saw the car.

  • 定语

    形容、修饰你名词的品质,特征或特性的成分,一般用形容词或名词充当,范围变小,顺序改变 He acts like a professional player.

  • 状语

    描述谓语动词作用状态的句子成分,所描述的状态可以是时间,地点,原因,程度,让步,比较,伴随。一般是副词、副词词组或从句 He lives in downtown. He spoke to him with smile.

  • 补语

    宾语补足语 紧随宾语之后,由形容词和名词充当,一些动词不光需要宾语,还需要宾补使句子更完整。顺序不变,范围不变 They elected him President.

    判断:是否存在主谓宾关系 主语补足语 补充说明主语所处状态,一般由名词或形容词充当

    I am a student. He was found alive.

  • 表语

    即主语补足语

  • 同位语

    名词,顺序可变可不变,范围不变 He himself will come. We all love you.

二、十大词类

词性这部分很乱,各位可以按照自己的习惯建立框架。

2.1名词

名词短语 1、修饰词可以省略

2、在主体词为可数名词复数的情况下,限定词可以省略,也可将限定词和修饰词同时省略

3、(不可数名词)专有名词时,限定词和修饰词可省

4、笼统或明显的情况下,主体词可省,主体词和修饰词可省 限定词 • 冠词 a/an • 形容词性物主代词 my,your…… • 名词所有格 one's • 指示代词 this、that…… • 不定代词 some、every…… • 基数词 one、two…… • 疑问代词 what、which…… 修饰词 adj. 主体词 n. 可数,不可数 从历史,使用角度,观察物体形态是否固定。固定可数,不固定不可数(母胎solo)

  • 可数

    • 单数 • 复数 规则和不规则

  • 不可数

    • 本身不可数 • 量化 a piece of paper • 可数化 have a good time 量化

2.2形容词

属性:(表人或物的)可加very修饰 类别:(表事物类别)不可加very修饰empty 颜色:浅色前加 light, pale, bright 深色前加dark,deep 强调:absolute, utter, total, entire 形容词顺序 (由高到低) 限定词 描绘词 大小长短 形状重量 状态: cold, wet

新旧 颜色 图案: spotted, flowery

国籍 物质 类别: working, sleeping This is a beautiful small wooden table. (限定 描述 大小 物质) 用法 定语 This ship is huge. 状语 I am off duty now, tried and sleepy. 宾补 The music makes me happy. 表语 This book is interesting. The+形容词 表一类人 比较级最高级 词性变化: 1、一般变化 2、词尾是以不发音的单音节e结尾 3、词尾是辅音字母+y结尾 4、以辅音字母的重读闭音节结尾 5、不规则变化 6、多音节或双音节,前加more/the most

no more than 只有 not more than 不超过

no more ……than = neither ……nor既不也不 not more ……than = not so ……as不如 less than表少于 no less than表多达 not less than表不少于 not less ……than表和什么一样 注意 too much太多 much too过分

good用在定语或表语 well用在状语

nice 表令人愉快,指物外表 fine表身体天气好

lonely 表孤独的 alone表独自一人

quickly和fast表速度快 soon表时间快 come soon(很快到来)

living 表示活着的,一模一样的,强烈的 alive表活着的人 live表活着的,现在直播的 lively表活泼的,生动的

2.3动词

实意动词 有实际意义 系动词 情态动词 https://blog.csdn.net/buyaozhongwe/article/details/106881596

2.4副词

定语 This shops around are very cheap. 状语 Look at picture carefully. 宾补 you came so late. 表语 The meeting is over.

注意: too:肯定句和疑问句句尾,用逗号隔开 also:肯定句的谓语动词之前,系动词之后 either:否定句句尾,用逗号隔开 nor:放在句首

sometimes:有时候 sometime:未来的某个时候 some times:很多次 some time:一些时间

表距离远 表更多,额外用further 抽象的远用further,具体的远两者皆可

most (名词,形容词,副词)很,十分 mostly(副词)大部分的,主要的 时间副词 地点副词 1、表地点 2、表位置 方式副词 carefully…… 程度副词 very,nearly 疑问副词 即疑问代词 强调副词 really,only 连接副词 引导主语从句,宾语从句,表语从句或并列结构 关系副词 引导定语从句 句子副词 actually

2.5数词

基数词 0~100 1k,1W,100W 序数词

2.6感叹词

https://zhuanlan.zhihu.com/p/106703028(懒得写了,各位自己在知乎上看吧,不是我总结的)

2.7代词

人称 主 宾 形物代 名代 反身代 I me my mine he him his his she her her hers it it its its you you your yours we us our ours they them their theirs 主格做主语/表语,宾格做宾语/表语 I like music.(主) I like her.(宾) It's me/I(主、宾) 形物代+名词=名物代 This book is my book. = This book is mine. 反身代词先得有该人人称 指示 this, that, these, those 不定 指人:someone, somebody, anyone, no one, everyone 指物:something 指人或物:none

1、“一些” some 肯定,any否定(希望得到对方肯定回答时用some) Would you like some water?

2、"多少" many,a few,few可数复数,much,little,a little不可数(有a表肯定,无a表否定) Jim has a few friends. Few pupils finish their homework.

3、由some, any, no, every构成的复合不定代词做主语时,都视为单数,谓语动词用三单 Everything is OK.

4、除no one外,其他复合不定代词都可以写成一个词

5、修饰不定代词的定语放在后面 Did you find something interesting in the park? 疑问 where, who, what, whom, whose, which, how

2.8连词

并列或递进 1、and同地位,不强调 2、not only A but also B, 重点在B,所以谓语动词与B一致 3、A as well as B 重点在A,谓语动词与A一致 转折 1、but 2、indeed but表让步后的强调 二选一 1、or(连接两主语时,谓语动词就近原则) 2、either or 都不选 neither nor 否定A,肯定B not ……but 由于A,因此B 1、so(常见口语) 下面是副词性连词 2、therefore 3、thus 4、consequently 5、accordingly 6、then 7、hence A的原因是B 1、for(加逗号区分介词) It must have rained during the night, for the road is wet.

2、because He is loved by all, because he is honest.

because后接事实,由于存在事实,导致后面结果。for后接现象,由现象推断前面结论 A的例子是B 1、such as 下面都是副词性连词 2、namely 3、that is 4、for example 5、for instance

2.9介词

常见: 1、地点 on 表在上面 in 后面加大地方 at 后面加小地方,具体位置

2、时间 on 后面跟具体时间(等于一天的时间) in 非具体时间(大于一天的世界) In spring at 跟具体时刻,具体周或节日(小于一天的时间) At midnight

3、方位 on表左右,表连接 on the left, (加拿大和美国) in表里面(中国和甘肃) to表邻接,表方向(中国和日本) to the south

4、时间 after+具体时刻:表在什么时刻之后,跟一般时 in+一段时间:表在多久之后,跟将来时 since+具体时刻或从句:表自什么时候起,一直到现在 for+一段时间:总共多长时间

5、范围 in front of:表在范围外的前面 (我们学校前有一棵树) in the front of:表在范围里的前面 (我们坐在公交车的前面)

6、其他 by乘坐交通的方式 I have to go by bus. in 使用某种语言 He has a speech in English today. with使用某种根据 Blending with Light though穿过 across,over跨过

2.10冠词

冠词不能和代词连用 This the car is popular(x) 定冠词 上文提到过的人或物 This car is popular,but the car isn't cheap. 地理位置 We are based in the Beijing. 江河湖海 The Yellow River 最高级前 This is the best cup of coffee. 唯一存在 The earth 表强调之前 Beijing is the capital of China. 乐器之前 I like play the piano. 不定冠词 第一次提到的人或物 It's a cat. 对唯一事物进行说明 Their dream is to go on a world tour. 和名词连用,做表语或同位语,代表职业 I am an engineer. 表价格,速度,频率 80 miles an hour 固定短语 Have a good time. 零冠词 很广泛的概念 Sichuan dishes are spicy. 书名,人名 I am reading "Journey to the West". 某些国家,城市 China is a big country. 某些山河湖海洲 Asia 星球 Mars 语言,球类,学科,棋牌 study English 三餐,日期,季节 It's September 1st.

三、时态

3.1一般态

错位叠加法:将时态拆分开来,各个形式错位叠加在一起,即该时态的形式(这个方法大家可以搜索学习以下,专门针对时态搭配记不住的同学)

3.1.1一般现在时

do/does 一般现在时: 表从过去到现在,直至将来一段时间发生的动作

  • 语境一:表普遍事实或真理

    表达不收时间限制的科学事实、客观真理、谚语格言(结论)

    eg: The world is round

  • 语境二:表重复性活动

    与现在完成时的区别:一般现在时说明将来还会做,而现在完成时下,将来不一定会做

    1、表习惯的动作 eg:I often goes to the gym.

    2、表习惯的状态 eg: I like rice for dinner.

  • 语境三:表正在发生的动作

    1、以here和there的句子中,表目前短暂的动作 eg: Here comes your wife.

    2、表现在瞬间的动作(表示范,传达别人动作) eg: Wacth carefully.First I pick up the receiver,dial the number I want, then drop the coin into the slot as required.

  • 语境四:表将要发生的动作

    1、条件状语从句(if, unless)和时间状语从句(when, as soon as, before, after)中 eg: I'll be gald if she comes over to visit me.

    2、未来的计划或安排 eg: The train starts 2 o'colck

    3、从句表将来主句往往用一个将来时 eg: I will give the booklet to whoever asks for it.

  • 语境五:表过去发生的动作

    1、死者著作 eg: R.Descartes says that the reading of all good books is like a conversation with the finest men of past centuries.

    2、引用书刊,报纸,信件,通知 The sign on the washing machine says,"Out of Order"

  • 语境六:代指现在完成时

    注:hear, find, see, learn, tell, read eg: I hear(= have heard) that he has left Beijing

【一直存在的状态】

3.1.2一般过去时

did

  • 语境一:过去特定时间发生的动作或状态

    常常和表示过去的特定时间连用 eg: He was late for school this morning.

  • 语境二:过去发生的重复或延续活动

    eg: He used to do morning exercise.

    和现在完成时的区别:现在完成时的动作延伸到现在,一般现在时则没有 口语拓展 1、I don't know | I didn't know 2、I forget | I forgot 3、I think | I thought (说话时仍保持之前的状态,用一般现在时)

  • 语境三:根据语境 -_-

  • 语境四:礼貌表达

    Could you give me a head?

3.1.3一般将来时

will do/does

  • 语境一:预测

    1、will eg: Will the brain understand itself?

    2、be going to eg: Look at the time, I will miss my bus.

    区别:be going to可能性更大,且时间发生的更早。will表说话人相信或认为的事 综上,预测时,will更正式

  • 语境二:计划与意愿

    be going to的计划(需要人做主语) eg: I am going to give you a surprise.

    will 的意愿 eg: Will you marry me?

    will是当机立断的决定,be going to则是事先已经做了准备

3.1.4一般 过去将来时

would do/does

3.2进行态

3.2.1现在进行时

am/is/are doing

  • 语境一:说话时刻正在进行

  • 语境二:目前一段时间内持续的一种状态

    What are you doing these day? I'm taking grammar course.

    阶段性的动作,并非规律性或持久的

  • 语境三:用于表示“改变”的动词,强调持续性

change, come, get, become, grow, deteriorate

eg: It's getting dark.

  • 语境四:表达说话人强烈感情

  • 语境五:确定将来的安排

    I'm getting married.

  • 语境六:与always等连用,表达富有情绪的多次重复

    always, forever, continually, constantly. eg: He's continually asking me for money.

3.2.2过去进行时

was/were doing

  • 语境一:设置故事背景

    效果:会给读者身临其境的感觉

    一个句子中的两个动作,动作相对长的用过去进行时,短的用一般过去时

  • 语境二:描述过去特定时间发生的动作

  • 语境三:两个同时在持续的动作(少见)

    都用过去进行时 口语:委婉请求或建议 I was hoping that you'd like to send me your car.

3.2.3将来进行时

will be doing

  • 语境一:将来特定时刻持续的事

  • 语境二:将来计划好的事

    He isn't coming to the party.

  • 语境三:表示长的背景动作

    They probably will be watching TV when we got there.

  • 口语:疑问句中,客气的询问

    How long will you be staying?

  • 语境四:表示客观的将来

If I fail to show up by 7o'clock,I will not be coming at all.

3.2.4过去 将来进行时

would be doing

3.3完成态

动作从过去开始,一直持续到现在,且将来还有可能继续 是一般过去时和一般现在时的结合,强调动作完成后的结果

强调动作发生期间不间断性 强调可持续性

3.3.1现在完成时

have/has done

  • 语境a:动作过去已完成,“借古讽今”

    I have get married 我已经结婚了 (暗示我们之间不可能了)

  • 语境b:动作持续到现在,“从古到今”

    I have learned English for 10 years ago. 我已经学了十年的英语了 (暗示我的英语水平还不错)

3.3.2过去完成时

had done 关键:过去时间标志

  • 语境a'

    I had seen the movie when she invited. 她邀请我的时候,我已经吧那部电影看过一遍了 (在她邀请我之前,我已经将那部电影看完了。暗示可不可以看其他电影)

  • 语境b'

    I had learned English for 10 years when I graduated. 我毕业的时候,已经学了十年的英语了。

3.3.3将来完成时

will have done 关键:将来时间标志

  • 语境a‘’

    I will have seen the movie when she arrives in Beijing. 她到北京的时候,我可能已经看完那部电影了

  • 语境b'’

    I will have learned English for 10 years when I graduate. 到我毕业的时候,就已经学了十年的英语了。 (对将来的总结)

3.3.4过去 将来完成时

would have done

3.4完成进行态

3.4.1现在 完成进行时

have/has been doing

Now that she is out of a job, Lucy has been considering going back to school,but she hasn't decided yet. 露库现在已经失业了,她在考虑回学校的事,但至今还没有决定 (失业发生在过去,那么考虑这件事是从过去开始,一直持续到现在,将来还可能继续)

3.4.2过去 完成进行时

had been doing

The crazy fans had been waiting patiently for two hours, and they would wait still the movie star arrived. 那些疯狂的粉丝已经耐心的等待了两个小时了,并且他们将继续等待下去直到影星到来。 (从“would”看出,两个小时后并不是现在,所以等待两个小时的动作结束在过去)

3.4.3将来 完成进行时

will have been doing

3.4.4过去将来 完成进行时

would have been doing

英语思维 一个简单句只能有一个谓语 如果要表达多个动作概念 连词 非谓语动词 从句

如有错误,欢迎指出。转载请注明出处。

石神

2021/12/30  阅读:50  主题:默认主题

作者介绍

石神